CFP: RC21 Stream (S6) on The Urban Spectre of ‘Global China’ and Critical Reflections on its Spatiality

Happy to announce this call for papers for a stream that I am organizing with two of my excellent former PhD students. We have been developing this particular research, and would like to interact with colleagues who share similar interests and critical perspectives. Deadline: 20th January 2019.

RC21 CFP: S6 – The Urban Spectre of ‘Global China’ and Critical Reflections on its Spatiality

RC21, 18-21 September 2019, Delhi, India (


Professor Hyun Bang Shin, London School of Economics and Political Science (UK)
Dr Yimin Zhao, Renmin University of China (China)
Dr Sin Yee Koh, Monash University Malaysia (Malaysia)

Stream synopsis

The overseas expansion of China’s economic influence has recently been foregrounded in media reports and policy debates. The term ‘Global China’ has been widely adopted to depict the geopolitical dimension of this immense flow of capital. However, there is still a lack of attention to the urban dimension of ‘Global China’, especially regarding its impacts on the (re)imaginings and manifestations of urban futures – both within and beyond China.

In extant literature on Global China, two main features stand out. The first is the tendency to bound discussions of China’s role in global capital flows within Africa, and to theorise this role in terms of neo-colonialism. The second feature is the overt focus on the role of Chinese capital in industrial sectors – for example through investigations of labour conflicts (Giese 2013), labour regimes (Lee 2009, 2018), and workplace regimes (Fei et al. 2018). While there are increasing discussions on the spatiality of ‘Global China’, especially in relation to the ’Belt and Road’ (BRI) discourse, they are still closely linked to industrial sectors. 

In this stream, we seek to address the existing gaps identified above through a focus on the urban spectre of ‘Global China’. We welcome theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions that address the interconnections and intersections between the rise of ‘Global China’ and ‘the urban’ (broadly defined). We aim to bring together papers that (1) critically examine the differentiated modes of speculative and spectacular urban production; (2) discuss the ways in which ‘the urban’ has been reconfigured by ‘Global China’; and (3) identify the theoretical and empirical implications for urban futures.

Submit your abstract

Please send your abstract of not more than 300 words to Hyun (, Yimin ( and Sin Yee ( and CC’d to before January 20th, 2019. Please indicate the stream number (S6), the session title, and your last name in the subject line. For more details, please see the official instruction at: 


If you have any questions regarding this stream, please email Hyun (, Yimin ( and Sin Yee ( 

CFP: 9th East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography (EARCAG), 10-13 Dec. 2018, Daegu, South Korea

Please find attached a copy of the Call for Papers for the 9th EARCAG conference in Daegu, South Korea, taking place between 10 and 13 December 2018.

The first EARCAG event was in Daegu in January 1999, and the December 2018 gathering in Daegu is going to be a 20th anniversary return to the place where it all started.

The deadline of abstract submissions and organised session submission is 28 Feb 2018. Submission e-mail:*

  • Deadline extended to 31 March 2018

The full CFP and event description is as follows:

Call for Papers for the 9th East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography (EARCAG)

For Spatial Justice: Rethinking Socio-spatial Issues from East Asian Perspectives

Date: 10 (Mon) – 13 (Thurs) December, 2018

Venue: Daegu University (10 December) and Daegu Exco (11-13December), South Korea

Organizer: Korean Association of Space and Environment Research (KASER), Seoul National University Centre for Asian Cities (SNU CAC)

Supporting Institutions: Daegu University, SNU CAC, KASER, Daegu city government

Local Organizing Committee: Byung-Doo Choi (Daegu University), Jintae Hwang (Seoul National University), Hyunjoo Jung (Seoul National University), Sanghun Lee (Hanshin University), Young A Lee (Daegu University), Bae-Gyoon Park (Seoul National University), In Kwon Park (University of Seoul), Se Hoon Park (Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements), HaeRan Shin (Seoul National University), Byeongsun Jeong (Seoul Institute)

EARCAG Steering Committee: Byung-Doo Choi (Daegu University, South Korea), Bae-Gyoon Park (Seoul National University, South Korea), Amriah Buang (Malaysia), Jim Glassman (University of British Columbia, Canada), Chu-joe Hsia (Nanjing University, China), Jinn-yuh Hsu (National Taiwan University, Taiwan), Fujio Mizuoka (Hitotsubashi University, Japan), Toshio Mizuuchi (Osaka City University, Japan), Wing-Shing Tang (Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong)

The issue of ‘spatial justice’ appears again. In the first East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography held in January 1999 in Gyeongju and Daegu South Korea, the main concern was spatial justice. The theme of the conference was ‘Socio-Spatial Issues for East Asian Countries in the 21st century,’ and twenty scholars assembled to discuss those issues. Since then, a growing number of scholars within the network have witnessed increasing precarity and complexity in producing and constituting inequalities and injustices in East Asian society. Out of necessity and concern, they have explored critical interpretations of socio-spatial issues from East Asian perspectives.

Twenty years after the first conference in the same location, we now propose rethinking socio-spatial issues from East Asian perspectives in the hopes of promoting spatial justice. The East Asian perspectives refer to the awareness and understanding of the intertwined relations between the East Asian context and the nature of the methods in which spatial dynamics are organized and constituted.

The aim of EARCAG is to provide a platform for critical geographers and other social scientists to debate social and spatial issues in East Asia. Critical Social scientists have observed increasing complexities, interdependence and inequalities in the development of capitalism and geopolitics over the world. The tradition of strong nation-states and the geopolitical tension particularly in East Asia have produced convergent social and spatial concerns. What are the socio-spatial issues that challenge spatial justice especially in the East Asian region? How are the issues approached in relation to Asian capitalism, politics, and the affects thereof?

Potential session topics include but are not limited to:

  • Embedded developmentalism and spatial justice in post-developmental-state society; post-territorial dynamics of spatial justice
  • Right to the cities and urban commons
  • Geography of precarity; increasing precarity and the precariat’s spatial dynamics and precarious spaces
  • Gender, Space and Justice; Gendered migration within and from East Asia
  • Alternative spaces for spatial justice; critical geopolitics for spatial justice
  • Mobilities as threats to and possibilities for spatial justice; Mobilities promoted and mobilized under the post-developmental state
  • Challenge of climate change and risk governance in East Asia
  • Environmental justice; critical geography for nature and the environment
  • Technology development and spatial justice in a smart era
  • Urban alienation and just city in East Asia
  • Uneven regional development and spatial justice
  • Equity issues in cities and regions under Neo-liberalism; Planning and policy issues for social justice from East Asian perspective

The Keynote Speakers


Submission of Abstracts

If you are interested in participating in this conference, please send an abstract, no more than 500 words, to by 28 February, 2018. The organizing committee will review the abstracts and contact you with the result by 30 April, 2018.

Organised Sessions

If you plan to organise a session, please send the title and description of the session and your papers in it to by 28 February, 2018

Registration Fee

  • Participants from the OECD member countries, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong (US$150 (faculty), US$70 (students))
  • Participants elsewhere (US$70 (faculty), US$35 (students))


Hotel Inter-Burgo Exco (

Please direct any inquires to Young A Lee or HaeRan Shin at

“Planetary Gentrification” authors-meet-Critics session at RGS-IBG annual conference 2016

PlanetaryGentrification-CoverVisualI am very much looking forward to this ‘authors-meet-critics’ session at this year’s RGS-IBG annual conference, featuring my co-authored book Planetary Gentrification.

The session is to be convened and chaired by Professor Ronan Paddision (University of Glasglow), and sees the contributions from three critics, Professor David Ley (The University of British Columbia), Dr Andy Merrifield and Dr Kate Maclean (Birkbeck, University of London). All three authors are also going to be present (Ernesto via Skype connection).

The session is sponsored by the journal Urban Studies, and is followed by a drink reception in the Drayson Room from 18.45.


235 Authors meet critics: Planetary gentrification
Convenor(s) Ronan Paddison (University of Glasgow, UK)
Chair(s) Ronan Paddison (University of Glasgow, UK)
Timetable Thursday 01 September 2016, Session 4 (16:50 – 18:30)
Room RGS-IBG Ondaatje Theatre
Session abstract At the beginning of the C21st proclamations rang out that gentrification had gone global, this book critically evaluates that assumption. Drawing on the ‘new’ comparative urbanism and writings on planetary urbanization the book argues that gentrification is one of the most significant and socially unjust processes affecting cities world-wide today. Looking beyond the usual gentrification suspects in Euro-America, towards ‘non-Western cities’ in the Global South and East, the authors undertake a much needed transurban learning underpinned by a critical political economy approach. The book shows that gentrification has unfolded at a planetary scale, but it has not assumed a North to South or West to East trajectory, it is much more complex than that. Rich with empirical detail, yet wide-ranging, Planetary Gentrification unhinges, unsettles, and provincializes Western notions of urban development. The book is invaluable to urban scholars interested in the Future of Cities and the production of a truly global urban studies, and to all those committed to social justice in cities. Sponsored by Urban Studies


EARCAG Conference Session, Dec 2016: Speculative Urbanisation and Resistant Politics in East Asia

Session Organiser:

  • Laam Hae (York University, Canada)
  • Hyun Bang Shin (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK)

Please reach the organiser at or if you are interested to present in this session.

In the Western literature, post-industrialisation and global financialisation are identified as a main driver of the rise of property-based urban accumulation, resulting in speculation in the real estate sector. However, in East Asia, land and housing have been subject to rampant speculation during the last three decades of urbanisation and city-making, and not necessarily a result of post-industrialisation, although the region’s declining profitability of manufacturing industries would have contributed to the further rise of real estate speculation that guaranteed high returns on ‘investment’ (Haila, 1999, 2000; Shin; 2016; Shin and Kim, 2016). While East Asian real estate speculation can be understood broadly as social, economic and spatial manifestation of developmental urbanisation, it is also important to acknowledge unevenness in the ways in which such speculation has taken place among different countries in the region. That is, speculation over the urban built environment has been an embedded process in each country, moored in contexts and histories of local politics, economies and societies and expressed in locally specific ways.

In this regard, this session aims to bring together papers that can engage with the following (and other related) questions.

  • How has speculative urbanisation been unfolding in East Asian cities in locally specific ways?
  • What does speculative urbanisation signify in the changing political economy and emerging (re)formations of social structure including class, gender/race relations in each country?
  • How is the process of real estate speculation fraught with dispossession of people’s rights and displacement of the un/propertied?
  • In what ways have various mechanisms of social reproduction been shaped by the unfolding speculation?

We particularly welcome papers that discuss the transformative potential of various resistant politics that have emerged against speculative urbanisation in East Asia.

CFP: 2nd International Conference on Cultural Political Economy, 25-26 August 2016

Forwarding an announcement from Dr Ngai-Ling Sum at Lancaster University. The Cultural Political Economy Research Centre in Lancaster University is organising its second international conference on cultural political economy, this time in partnership with the Graduate School of Education in Bristol University. Below is the CFP for the event. Abstract submission deadline is 29 April 2016.

The Cultural Political Economy Research Centre in Lancaster University, in partnership with the Graduate School of Education in Bristol University will be hosting the second international conference between 25-26 August 2016. We are sending out this call for papers and look forward to hearing from you.

Conference Theme: Putting Culture in its Place in Political Economy

Hosted by the Centre for Globalization, Education and Social Futures

Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol

The second international conference on Cultural Political Economy will be hosted by the Centre for Globalization, Education and Social Futures at Bristol University build on the highly successful event held at the University of Lancaster in 2015 hosted by Bob Jessop and Ngai-Ling Sum in partnership with Lancaster’s Cultural Political Economy Research Centre (CPERC). The conference is an important part of the ongoing development of a theoretical and empirical engagement with Cultural Political Economy.

Call for Papers

The organizers welcome proposals for papers and panels on the following, illustrative topics: other themes are also welcome:

  • What does it mean to be critical?
  • Cultural turns in different fields of inquiry
  • Critical Discourse Analysis and Political Economy
  • Critical cultural political economy
  • Marx, Gramsci and Foucault
  • Intersectionalism and Political Economy
  • Social Relations, Everyday Life and Subjectivities
  • State, Governance and Governmentality
  • Reimagining civil society
  • Rethinking civilizational paradigms
  • Aesthetics and performance of political economy
  • Spatial imaginaries, geoeconomics and geopolitics
  • Spatialities and temporalities of borders and migration
  • Neoliberalism and crisis dynamics
  • Global capitalism, crises and imagined recoveries
  • Globalization of production, commerce and finance
  • Finance, austerity and debt
  • Work, employment, body and embodiment
  • Competition, competitiveness and resilience
  • Globalization, education and societies
  • Sustainability and green capitalism
  • Inequalities of wealth and income
  • Subalternity, social movements and resistance

For further information, please go to and send your proposal to


AAG annual meeting in San Francisco, 2016

Back in the US, this time to take part in this year’s annual meeing of the American Association of Geographers in San Francisco, a city that I am visiting for the first time, so quite excited about the prospect of meeting new colleagues, exchanging thoughts and catching up with old friends. My sessions are as follows:

2nd Call for Papers for EARCAG in December 2016

Please see the message below from EARCAG conference secretariat. EARCAG stands for the East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography, which brings together critical geographers around the world who work on the East Asian region. This time, the conference is to be held in Hong Kong in December 2016. I’m also planning to attend this, and it will be good to see more of my colleagues coming to Hong Kong.

===== forwarded message begins =====

-please circulate to those who may be interested, thank you; sorry for cross-posting-

The Department of Geography at Hong Kong Baptist University will organise the 8th meeting of the East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography (EARCAG) on 6th-8th December 2016. EARCAG aims to establish an international network among alternative geographers in East Asia and to explore further perspectives to investigate local geographical issues in East Asia.

The main theme of this meeting is Radicalism in Theory and Practice. Attached please find the second call for papers. Please note that the deadline for abstract submissions is scheduled on 10th March 2016. Besides the themes of this conference, we welcome all sorts of relevant topics and area focuses.

To know more, please visit our homepage:

Should you have any enquiries, please email us at

Best regards,
Conference Secretariat for
The 8th Meeting of East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography


Hong Kong Island (Photographed by Hyun Bang Shin, 2010)

[Skoll World Forum 2008] 사회적기업상 시상식

-주 연설자: 제프 스콜, 지미 카터 외
-3월 27일 목요일

스콜 월드 포럼의 하이라이트는 스콜 사회적기업상 (Skoll Awards for Social Entrepreneurship) 시상식이다. 2005년에 제정된 사회적기업상은 첫해에 13개 단체가 수상하였으며, 2006년도에는 16개 단체, 2007년도에는 10개 단체, 그리고 올해 2008년도에는 11개 단체가 수상하였다. 시상식 행사는 3월 27일 목요일 저녁 5시 30분에 시작하여 8시까지 이어졌으며, 개막 세션을 열었던 파라과이 청소년들(Sonidos de la Tierra)의 음악 연주로 시작하였다. Sonidos de la Tierra는 2005년도 수상 단체 중 하나였다.

“Escape Fire” – 창안 및 실천의 중요성

시상식에 앞서 제프 스콜의 연설이 있었다. 산등성이를 따라 급속히 위로 번지는 산불을 피해 산 정상을 향해 도망가던 사람들 가운데 한 명이 불길을 피하기 위해 ‘Escape Fire’를 놓았다. Escape Fire란 산등성이를 따라 불이 급속히 번질 때 피난자들이 퇴로에 불을 놓아 산림을 태우고 그 안에 머물러 번져오는 불길을 피하는 대처법이다. 제프 스콜은 이 대처법을 인용하면서 인류가 현재 직면하고 있는 기후변화, 식수 고갈 등의 문제와 관련하여 Escape Fire와 같은 창조적 발상을 내놓기 위해 고민해야 한다고 주장하였다. 사회적 기업가 정신으로 무장한 사람들의 적극적 실천이 중요하다는 점을 강조한 것이다.

“사회적 기업가야말로 우리 미래의 희망이다”

시상식은 지미 카터 미국 전임 대통령의 참석으로 더욱 빛을 발하였다. 청중의 기립 박수를 받으며 연단에 올라 선 83세 고령의 지미 카터는 자신의 인생을 통해 만난 다양한 (사회적) 기업가들을 소개하면서 연설을 이어 나갔다. 나병 환자들을 돌보았던 자신의 어머니 릴리언 카터, 오래 전 투표권을 행사하기 위해 두려움을 무릅쓰고 기어코 유권자 등록을 해내었던 어느 흑인, 지금도 카터 재단에서 질병 퇴치 분야 책임자로 일하는 돈 홉킨스, dirt farmer로 일컬어지며 식량난 해결을 위해 노력한 Norman Borlaug (1970년 노벨 평화상 수상자), 그리고 제프 스콜과 같은 사회적 기업가들의 이름이 거론되었다. 지미 카터가 2002년 오슬로에서 노벨 평화상을 수락하면서 했던 자신의 연설을 다시 상기시켜 주었다. “The greatest challenge of the twenty first century is the growing gap between the richest people and the poorest people.”

아프리카와 같은 빈곤 지역에서 질병 퇴치 등에 큰 힘을 쏟고 있는 그는 지구상에 실재하는 빈부격차의 한 예로서, 부자는 질병에 걸려 죽는다하더라도 비만, 흡연 등 자기 선택에 기인한 질병으로 죽지만, 빈자는 무슨 질병에 걸린지도 모른채 치료약을 받아 보지도 못하고 죽는다고 얘기한다. 이러한 상황을 타개하기 위한 가장 강력한 무기는 이를 해결하고자 헌신하는 사람들이라고 말한다. 그러면서 청중을 향해“당신들 사회적 기업가야 말로 우리 미래의 희망이다” (You social entrepreneurs are indeed the hope of our future world)라고 말했다.

이후 시상식에서는 모두 12개 단체가 참석하여 스콜 사회적기업상을 수상하였다. 수상 명단은 아래와 같다.

  • Mark Plotkin and Liliana Madrigal, Amazon Conservation Team
  • Michael Eckhart, American Council on Renewable Energy
  • Connie K. Duckworth, Arzu
  • Jeremy Hockenstein and Mai Siriphongphanh, Digital Divide Data
  • Jenny Bowen, Half the Sky
  • Matt Flannery and Premal Shah, Kiva
  • William Strickland, Manchester Bidwell Corp (2007년도 수상 단체)
  • Dr. Mitchell Besser and Gene Falk, mothers2mothers
  • Dr. Paul Farmer, Partners in Health
  • Daniel Lubetzky, PeaceWorks Foundation
  • Mechai Viravaidya, Population and Community Development Agency
  • Cecilia Flores-Oebanda, Visayan Forum Foundation

[Skoll World Forum 2008] Opening Session

올 해 5회째 개최되는 Skoll World Forum. 700여명이 참석하여 3월 26일부터 28일까지 진행되었다. 한국 희망제작소 대표로 한국에서 두 분과 나, 이렇게 셋이 참석하였다.


-주 연설자: Jeff Skoll, Anthony Giddens 외 기타
-3월 26일 수요일

“It’s never too late to start” (Jeff Skoll)

매년 옥스포드에서 열리는 Skoll World Forum의 2008년도 개막 세션이 3월 26일 4시 30분부터 진행되었다. 오랜 역사를 지닌 Sheldonian Theatre에서 약 2시간 진행된 개막 세션은 파라과이 청소년팀의 연주와 함께 시작했다. 사회는 옥스포드대학 경영대학원 부설 Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship의 소장인 Stephan Chambers 교수가 맡았다. Jeff Skoll과 Anthony Giddens 교수가 먼저 연설하였고, 패널 토론, 영국 정부 제3섹터 차관 등의 연설이 그 뒤를 이었다.

e-Bay 초대 회장으로서 1999년 스콜재단을 설립하여 기업의 사회적 책임과 공익 활동을 적극적으로 주장해 온 제프 스콜은 이번 대회를 기념하기 위하여 1890년대 당시 옥스포드 대학에서 있었던 조정 경기를 담은 그림을 준비하였는데, 우승을 위해 경쟁하는 조정 선수와 마찬가지로 사회적 기업가역시 빈곤 퇴치 등 사회적 문제에 대항해 경주를 해야 하는 비슷한 처지라고 비유했다. 2년 전 대회 개최 당시 그는“Social entrepreneurs are the world’s most hidden secret”이라고 말했었지만, 이제 더 이상 비밀이 아니게 되었다라는 말로써 사회적 기업 활동이 활성화되었다는 자부심을 보여주었다. 그리고,“It’s never too late to start”라는 표현으로 사회적 문제에 대한 대응을 촉구한 그는 ‘사회적 기업가는 불가능을 인정하지 않으며 패배적이거나 나태한 생각을 거부하는 사람들’이라고 칭송한다.

Politics of ‘How’ (Anthony Giddens)

제프 스콜의 뒤를 이어 제3의 길 주창자 Anthony Giddens 교수가 30여분간 기후변화 문제를 진단하였다. Giddens는 대부분의 기후변화 관련 논쟁이 달성해야할 목표에만 집중되고, 그 목표를 어떻게 달성해야 하는지에 대해서는 논의하지 않는다고 비판했다. 즉 Politics of ‘How’가 부재하다는 그는 이런 의미에서 사회적 기업가들의 실천 정신이 큰 의미를 지닌다고 역설했다.

(Details of the rest of the Opening Session to be made available soon.)

아래 사진은 개막식이 열린 Sheldonian Theatre 내부 모습

[Skoll World Forum 2008] Closing Session – Al Gore speech

“우리 삶의 목적은 무엇인가”

  • 연설자: 알 고어

  • 2008년 3월 28일 금요일 (폐회 직전 강연)

알 고어 미국 전임 부통령. 2006년에 이어 두 번째 스콜 월드 포럼에 참석하였다. 영상 메시지 전달인 줄 알았는데 직접 참석하여 30여분 가까이 기후 변화의 심각성, 이에 대한 사회적 기업가의 대응에 대해 연설하였다. 제프 스콜은 그를 ‘우리에게 용기와 비전을 가져다 준 사람’으로 칭한다. 최근 몇년 동안 스콜과 함께 여행을 다니며 친해졌다는 그는 스콜의 가장 친한 친구와 자기 막내딸이 작년에 결혼하였다는 말로 웃음을 주기도 하였다.

강연의 상당 부분은 지구 온난화의 규모 및 급속한 진행에 할애되었다. 이 문제는 Developing countries와 developed countries 모두 공동으로 협력해 대응해야 할 문제이며, Generosity가 아닌, 생존의 문제로 접근해야 한다는 점을 강조하였다. “지구상의 모든 국가가 우리가 살고 있는 지구를 구하려는 공동 이익을 추구하고 이를 실현해야 한다”고 주창한다.

그리고 33년전 이웃 친구와의 일화 한토막을 전달한다. 애견 훈련을 부업으로 하던 친구였는데, 새로 구한 강아지를 데리고 가서 훈련을 부탁하자 묻더란다.“What’s the purpose of the puppy?” 친구는 갑작스런 질문에 어리벙벙해진 고어 자신과 아내에게 다시 집 지키는 개로 키울 것인지, 아니면 재롱을 잘 피우는 강아지로 키울 것인지 어떤 경우냐고 물은 뒤에“A puppy has to have a purpose”라고 덧붙였다고 한다. 고어는 청중에게 반문하였다. “우리 역시 마찬가지 아니겠느냐, 그렇다면 “우리 (삶의) 목적은 무엇인가”라고.

오늘을 살아가는 현 세대는 우리 삶의 목적이 분명하기에 혜택받은 세대이며, 그 목적은 우리가 살고 있는 이 세계를 구할 수 있는 방법을 찾는 것이라고 말한다.

최근 여러 나라에서 기후 변화의 심각성 및 이에 대한 대처를 촉구하고자 캠페인을 벌이기 시작하였다고 전한다. 스콜재단도 함께 하는 이 캠페인은 올해 미국에서 3년동안 진행될 예정이며, 미국민이 사태의 심각성을 더욱 깨닫게 하기 위함이라 한다. 미국이 태도에 변화를 보이지 않으면 인도, 중국과 같은 다른 나라를 설득하여 더 늦기 전에 주어진 기회를 잡고 위험에 대처하기 힘들어진다는 것이다. 사회적 기업가들에 대한 메시지는 그의 강연 마무리에 나왔다. 기후 변화에 대한 대처를 계기로 사회적 기업가의 결속을 높이길 바란다는 것이다.

퇴임 부통령으로서 왕성한 활동을 벌이고 이곳 옥스포드까지 찾아와 자신이 믿는 바를 설파하는 그를 보면서 퇴임 정치가, 행정가의 역할에 대하여 잠시 생각해 본다. 더군다나 전날 있었던 83세인 지미 카터의 연설에 이어 고어의 연설을 들으면서 다시한번 느꼈다. 사회적 기업을 통해 사회문제를 해결하려고 하는 것이 과연 적절한지 여러 관점에서 바라보고 깊이 논의하여 볼 필요가 있지만, 사회적 기업가라고 일컬어지는 이들의 창의적 에너지와 열정은 어쨌든 크게 매력적이다. 알 고어에게서 진정성과 열정으로 끊임없이 문제를 제기하고 해결 방안을 찾고자하는 사회적 기업가의 모습이 묻어 나온다.