Wonderful line-up of speakers for #AAG2015 sessions: Contextualising Rights in Urban Protests against Displacement

Following up on my earlier post that announced the call forย papers for organising sessions at the forthcoming annual conference of the Association of American Geographers in Chicago in April 2015 (for the original CFP, pleaseย click here), it is with great pleasure to see the wonderful line-up of speakers, both paper presenters and panel session members, in the three sessions that will take place next week. Many thanks to all the contributors for making these sessions ever more exciting and inspiring.


AAG Annual Conference 2015

The Politics of Desire and Despair: Contextualising Rights in Urban Protests against Displacement in Asia and Beyond

Urban Geography Specialty Group
Cultural Geography Specialty Group
China Specialty Group

Organiser and Chair
Hyun Bang Shin, London School of Economics and Political Science

Paper Session I

Wednesday, 4/22/2015, from 8:00 AM – 9:40 AM in Regency D, Hyatt, West Tower, Gold Level

The Tragedy of The Commons As a Cost of Rapid Urbanization in South Korea’s Late Industrialization Context.
Dong-Wan Gimm, Seoul National University, South Korea

Displacement as Marginalised Property Rights in Australia, Brazil and Chile: Toward a Conceptual Comparative Framework
Libby Porter, Monash University, Australia

Property rights and informality: street food sellers in Singapore and Helsinki compared
Anne Haila, University of Helsinki, Finland

Rightful Resistance in Relational Spacetime: A Case Study of Beijing’s Greenbelt
Yimin Zhao, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK

The Fragmented Grassroots Resistance and the “Civilised” Capital Accumulation in “the City of Benevolenceโ€?
Zhao Zhang, University College Dublin, Ireland

Paper Session II
Wednesday, 4/22/2015, from 10:00 AM – 11:40 AM in Regency D, Hyatt, West Tower, Gold Level

What rights do resettled farmers claim in the city? Assessing demands for sustainable livelihoods, assets and urban citizenship among rural labourers involuntarily relocated to Tianjin
Jiabao Sun, Kingโ€™s College London, UK

The Fragile Right to the City: Homeownership and Speculative Urbanism in Taipei
Yi-ling Chen, University of Wyoming, USA and Hung-Ying Chen, Durham University

Bangkok’s street vendors and their rights to the city
Chaitawat Boonjubun, University of Helsinki, Finland

Whose right to what city? Voices from post-Gezi movement urban forums in Ankara, Turkey
Ceren Ergenรง and ร–zlem ร‡elik, Middle East Technical University, Turkey

Fighting the right to human flourishing: top-down mode of planning challenged in Hong Kong
Mee-Kam Ng, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Panel Discussion
Wednesday, 4/22/2015, from 1:20 PM – 3:00 PM in Regency D, Hyatt, West Tower, Gold Level

Hyun Bang Shin (Introducer), London School of Economics and Political Science

Anne Haila, University of Helsinki, Finland

George C.S. Lin, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Christian Schmid, ETH Zรผrich, Switzerland

Sharad Chari, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

Eric Clark, Lund University, Sweden

Book Review [In Korean]: Shanghai Gone by Qin Shao

This is the fifth monthly contribution to the Korean daily newspaper,ย The KyungHyang Shinmun. I have chosenย byย Qin Shao, Professor of History at The College of New Jersey. There is an excerpt of the book in English, which can be viewed on the Asia Society web siteย on this link.

The book discusses the life and struggle of Shanghai’s displacees whose life courses have abruptly changed by the city-wide redevelopment projects. Facing the almighty power of the state, developers, media and so on, displacees are transformed from ordinary residents to an occupational petitioners, a barrack-room lawyer or a community leader. The rights discourse spelled out by these people also provides a fascinating insight for our understanding on how the interaction between reform measures (economic, political and legal) and people’s response to these have reshaped their rights awareness and views on social justice.

The contents of this book resonate with my own research on residents’ displacement and redevelopment in Seoul (Nangok neighbourhood, ๋‚œ๊ณก) in South Korea (see my papers fromย Geoforumย andย Environment and Urbanization) as well as in Beijing and Guangzhou in China (in particular, my papers fromย Antipodeย andย Urban Studies).

2013๋…„ 6์›” 22์ผ ์ง€๋ฉด ๊ฒŒ์žฌ ์˜ˆ์ • [ํ•ด์™ธ ์ฑ…] ์„œํ‰ ์†ก๊ณ  ์›๊ณ :
(๊ฒŒ์žฌ๋œ ์›๊ณ  ๋ฐ”๋กœ๋ณด๊ธฐ)

์ƒํ•˜์ด, ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๋‹ค (Shanghai Gone: Domicide and Defiance in a Chinese Megacity), ์นœ ์ƒค์˜ค

ShanghaiGone-QinShao์ƒํ•˜์ดย ์ •๋ถ€ย ํ†ต๊ณ„๋ฅผย ๊ทผ๊ฑฐ๋กœย ์œ ์ถ”ํ•ด๋ณด๋ฉดย 2003๋…„๋ถ€ํ„ฐย 2010๋…„๊นŒ์ง€ย 48๋งŒย ๊ฐ€๊ตฌ,ย ๋Œ€๋žตย 150๋งŒ๋ช…ย ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์šดย ์‹œ๋ฏผ์ดย ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ์ด์ฃผย ๋Œ€์ƒ์ด์—ˆ๋˜ย ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœย ํŒŒ์•…๋œ๋‹ค. 2003๋…„ย ๊ธฐ์ค€ย ์ƒํ•˜์ดย ์ดย ๊ฐ€๊ตฌ์ˆ˜๊ฐ€ย 486๋งŒ์ด์—ˆ์œผ๋‹ˆ, 8๋…„ย ๋™์•ˆย ์—ดย ์ง‘ย ์ค‘ย ํ•œย ์ง‘๊ผด๋กœย ๊ฐ์ข…ย ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์‚ฌ์—…์œผ๋กœย ์ธํ•ดย ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ์ด์ฃผ๋œย ์…ˆ์ด๋‹ค.ย ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œย ํ†ต๊ณ„์—๋Š”ย ๋†๋ฏผ๊ณต์ด๋ผ๊ณ ๋„ย ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌ์šฐ๋Š”ย ์ด์ฃผ๋…ธ๋™์ž๊ฐ€ย ์ œ์™ธ๋˜๋‹ˆย ์‹ค์ œย ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ์ด์ฃผ๋œย ๋„์‹œ๋ฏผย ๊ทœ๋ชจ๋Š”ย ํ›จ์”ฌย ๋”ย ํดย ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.ย ์ค‘๊ตญ์˜ย 20์„ธ๊ธฐ์ดˆย ๋„์‹œํ™”ย ๊ณผ์ •์„ย ์—ฐ๊ตฌํ•˜๋˜ย ๋™์–‘์‚ฌํ•™์žย ์นœย ์ƒค์˜ค๊ฐ€ย 2013๋…„ย ๋ฐœํ‘œํ•œย ์ €์ž‘ย <์ƒํ•˜์ด,ย ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๋‹ค>๋Š”ย ์ตœ๊ทผย 10๋…„์—ย ์ผ์–ด๋‚œย ์ƒํ•˜์ด์˜ย ๋„์‹œ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋กœย ์ธํ•ดย ์ง‘๊ณผย ์ผ์ƒ์ดย ํŒŒ๊ดด๋œย ๋ณดํ†ตย ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์˜ย ๊ณ ๋‚œ๊ณผย ํˆฌ์Ÿย ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋ฅผย ๋‹ด๊ณ ย ์žˆ๋‹ค.

์ค‘๊ตญ ์‚ฌํšŒ์ฃผ์˜ ์ •๋ถ€ํ•˜์—์„œ ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์€ ์• ์ดˆ ์ฃผ๊ฑฐํ™˜๊ฒฝ๊ฐœ์„ ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋ณต์ง€์ ์„ฑ๊ฒฉ์ด ๊ฐ•ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์„ฑ๊ฒฉ์ด ๊ทผ๋ณธ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณ€ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ 1990๋…„๋Œ€ ์ง‘์ค‘๋œ ์ฃผํƒ ์ƒํ’ˆํ™”, ํ† ์ง€ ์ƒํ’ˆํ™” ์ •์ฑ…์— ๊ธฐ์ธํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ตญ๊ฐ€์†Œ์œ ์ธ ํ† ์ง€์˜ ์‚ฌ์šฉ๊ถŒ์ด ์‹œ์žฅ ๊ฑฐ๋ž˜ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ด ๋˜๊ณ , ๊ทธ ํŒ๋งค ์ˆ˜์ต์ด ์ง€๋ฐฉ์ •๋ถ€ ์˜ˆ์‚ฐ์™ธ ์žฌ์›์œผ๋กœํŽธ์ž…๋˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ง€๋ฐฉ์ •๋ถ€๊ฐ€ ํ† ์ง€๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์— ํฐ ์ดํ•ด๊ด€๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๊ฐ–๋Š”๋‹ค. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์— ๊ธ‰์†ํžˆ ํŒฝ์ฐฝํ•œ ์ฃผํƒ์‹œ์žฅ์— ๋ชฐ๋ฆฐ ํˆฌ์ž์‚ฌ, ๊ฑด์„ค์‚ฌ ๋“ฑ๊ณผ ๊ณตํ†ต์˜ ์ดํ•ด๊ด€๊ณ„๋ฅผ ํ† ๋Œ€๋กœ ํ˜‘๋ ฅ์  ๊ด€๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๋งบ์€ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋กœ์จ ๋„์‹œ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์€ ๋” ์ด์ƒ ๋ณต์ง€๋ผ๊ธฐ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ์ด์œค์ถ”๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ์ˆ˜์ต์‚ฌ์—…์ด ๋œ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์นœ ์ƒค์˜ค๋Š” ๋„์‹œ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์ด ๋„์‹œ๋ฏผ ๊ฑฐ์ฃผ์ง€์˜ ์˜๋„์  ํŒŒ๊ดด(Domicide)๋กœ๊ท€๊ฒฐํ•œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ์ดํ•ดํ•œ๋‹ค. 10๋…„ ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์šด ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•œ ํ˜„์ง€ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ์ง‘์•ฝํ•œ <์ƒํ•˜์ด, ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๋‹ค>๋Š” ์ค‘๊ตญ ๋„์‹œ๋ฏผ์˜ ์‚ถ๊ณผ ์šด๋ช…, ํˆฌ์Ÿ์„ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์˜ ์ธ์ƒ์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ํ’€์–ด๋‚ธ๋‹ค. ๊ฐœ๋ณ„ ๊ฐ€๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ํˆฌ์Ÿ ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ์ •๋ถ€ ๊ด€๋ฃŒ๋‚˜ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐํšŒ์‚ฌ, ๊ฑด์„ค์‚ฌ ๋“ฑ์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๊ฒช์€ ์ˆ˜๋ชจ, ๋ƒ‰๋Œ€๊ฐ€ ์ƒ์ƒํžˆ ๊ทธ๋ ค์ง€๊ณ , ์ฒญ์›์„ ํ•˜๊ณ  ์‹œ์œ„๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ๊ฐ์ˆ˜ํ•œ ๊ฐ์ข… ๊ณ ์ดˆ์™€ ์ธ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ์ƒ์ƒํžˆ๋ฌ˜์‚ฌ๋˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ €ํ•ญ์„ ํ†ตํ•ด ํ‰๋ฒ”ํ•œ ์œ ์น˜์› ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๊ณ ์••์  ์ •๋ถ€๊ธฐ๊ด€์„ ๋” ์ด์ƒ ๋‘๋ ค์›Œ ์•Š๋Š” โ€˜์ง์—…์  ์ฒญ์›์žโ€™๊ฐ€ ๋˜๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜๋ฉฐ, ํ‰๋ฒ”ํ•˜๋˜ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ๋“ค์ด ๋ฌธํ™”ํ˜๋ช… ๋‹น์‹œ ์Šฌ๋กœ๊ฑด์„ ์—ญ์œผ๋กœ ์ด์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์žฅ๋„ ํŽด๊ณ  ๊ตญ์ œ์ •์„ธ๋„ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜๋ฉฐ ๋น„์Šทํ•œ ์ฒ˜์ง€์˜ ํ”ผํ•ด์ž๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ ๋ฒ•๋ฅ  ์ž๋ฌธ๋„ ํ•˜๋Š” ์ „๋žต์ ํ™œ๋™๊ฐ€๋กœ ๋ฐ”๋€Œ๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•œ๋‹ค.

์ด ์ฑ…์€ ๋˜ํ•œ ๋„์‹œ ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋กœ ์ธํ•œ ์ง‘์˜ ํŒŒ๊ดด๊ฐ€ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์—๊ฒŒ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์  ์•…์˜ํ–ฅ์„๋ผ์น  ๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ด์ฃผ์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅธ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ , ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ์ถฉ๊ฒฉ ์—ญ์‹œ ์ œ๊ณตํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์„ ๊ฐ•์กฐํ•œ๋‹ค. ํŠนํžˆ ์˜ค๋žœ ์„ธ์›” ์ •๋“ค์—ˆ๋˜ ์ง‘์ด ์—†์–ด์ง€๊ณ  ๋งˆ์„์ด ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๊ณ ๋„์‹œ์˜ ์™ธ๊ด€์ด ํƒˆ๋ฐ”๊ฟˆํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ๊ฐœ์ธ, ๊ฐ€์ •, ๋„์‹œ์˜ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ, ๊ธฐ์–ต ์—ญ์‹œ ์ง€์›Œ์ง€๋Š” ์ง‘๋‹จ์  ๊ธฐ์–ต์ƒ์‹ค์„ ํฐ ๋ฌธ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ง€์ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ฐ•์ œ์ด์ฃผ ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ๊ธฐ๋ณธ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์ง“๋ฐŸํžˆ๊ณ  ์ด๋ฅผ ํšŒ๋ณตํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ•œ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฏผ์—๊ฒ ์ด ๋ชจ๋“ ๊ฒƒ์ด ์›ํ†ตํ•จ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ€์Šด ๊นŠ์ˆ™ํžˆ ๋‚จ๋Š”๋‹ค๋Š” ์  ์—ญ์‹œ ๊ฐ•์กฐํ•œ๋‹ค.

์นœ ์ƒค์˜ค๊ฐ€ ์ด๋“ค ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฏผ์˜ ์ธ์ƒ ์–˜๊ธฐ, ํˆฌ์Ÿ ๊ธฐ๋ก ๋“ฑ์„ ํ†ตํ•ด ๋งํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋ฌด์—‡์ผ๊นŒ? <์ƒํ•˜์ด, ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๋‹ค>๋Š” ๋‹จ์ง€ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฏผ์˜ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋„์‹œ๋ฐœ์ „ ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ์นจํ•ด ๋‹นํ–ˆ๋Š”์ง€๋ฅผ ์ „๋‹ฌํ•˜๋Š” ํ”ผํ•ด ๋ณด๊ณ ์„œ์— ๊ทธ์น˜๋Š”๊ฒƒ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ด๋“ค ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฏผ์ด ์ž์‹ ๋“ค์˜ ์กด์—„์„ฑ์„ ์ง€ํ‚ค๊ณ  ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ฒฝ์ œ์  ์ •์˜๋ฅผ ์‹คํ˜„ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์–ผ๋งˆ๋‚˜ ๋…ธ๋ ฅํ•˜๋Š”์ง€๋ฅผ ๋งํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ค‘๊ตญ์˜ ๊ฐœํ˜๊ฐœ๋ฐฉ์ •์ฑ… ์‹ค์‹œ ์ดํ›„, ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ ์˜์‹์€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋ณ€ํ•˜๋Š”์ง€, ์†Œ์œ ๊ถŒ ๊ฐœํ˜๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€๋ฒ•์ ์ธ ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋œ ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ ์˜์‹๊ณผ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ์ƒํ˜ธ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋Š”์ง€ ๋“ฑ์„ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ค€๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ผ๋ฐ˜ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์˜ ํˆฌ์Ÿ์ด ์Œ“์ด๊ณ  ํ™•์‚ฐํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ค‘๊ตญ์ด ์ข€ ๋” ๊ฐœ๋ฐฉ๋œ ์‚ฌํšŒ๋กœ ์ดํ–‰ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๊ณ  ๋” ๊ฐœ๋ฐฉ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์Œ์„์ฃผ์žฅํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ๋„์‹œ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์ด ์‚ด๋˜ ์ฃผํƒ์€ ํŒŒ๊ดด์  ๋„์‹œ์ •์ฑ…์œผ๋กœ ์—†์–ด์ง€๊ณ , ๊ด€๋ฃŒ์˜ ๋ถ€ํŒจ ๋“ฑ์€ ๋„์‹œ๋ฏผ์—๊ฒŒ ๋น„ํ†ตํ•จ์„ ์•ˆ๊ธฐ์—ˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ํํ—ˆ ์†์—์„œ ํ”ผ์–ด์˜ค๋ฅธ ๊ฒƒ์€ ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ฒฝ์ œ์  ์ •์˜ ๋ฐ ์ธ๊ฐ„์œผ๋กœ์„œ์˜ ์กด์—„์„ฑ์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ํˆฌ์Ÿ์ด๋ฉฐ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ํˆฌ์Ÿ์„ ํ†ตํ•ด ์ฃผ๋ฏผ๋“ค ์—ญ์‹œ ๋ณ€ํ™”ํ•จ์„ ์–˜๊ธฐํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์นœ ์ƒค์˜ค๊ฐ€ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์˜ ๊ด€์ ์—์„œ ํ’€์–ด๋‚ด๋Š” ์ง€๋‚œ 10๋…„ ์ƒํ•˜์ด ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋Š” ํ•œ๊ตญ ๋„์‹œ์—๊ฒŒ๋„ ์ต์ˆ™ํ•œ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ด๋‹ค. ์ค‘๊ตญ์—์„œ ๊ฐ•์ œ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ์— ์ €ํ•ญํ•˜๋Š” ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ์˜ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์ด์ž ํ˜„์žฌ์ด๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜๋‹ค. ํ•œ๊ตญ ์—ญ์‹œ ๋ฉ€์ง€์•Š์€ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ 1980๋…„๋Œ€ ๋ง ์œ ์—”์ธ๊ฐ„์ •์ฃผ๊ณ„ํš(UN-HABITAT)์ด ์„ ์ •ํ•œ โ€˜์„ธ๊ณ„์—์„œ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ํญ์••์ ์ธ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฅผ ์žํ–‰ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ตญ๊ฐ€โ€™์— ๋‚จ์•„ํ”„๋ฆฌ์นด๊ณตํ™”๊ตญ๊ณผ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ์„ ์ •๋œ ๋ถˆ๋ฏธ์Šค๋Ÿฐ ๊ธฐ๋ก์„ ๊ฐ–๊ณ  ์žˆ์„ ์ •๋„๋กœ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ์˜ ๊ธฐ์–ต์€ ์•„ํ””์˜ ๊ธฐ์–ต์ด๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ๊ทธ ์•„ํ””๊ณผ ์ƒ์‹ค์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋Š” ํˆฌ์Ÿ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ž„์„ ํ•œ๊ตญ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฏผํˆฌ์Ÿ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ์ฆ๋ช…ํ•œ๋‹ค. โ€˜๋‘๊ฐœ์˜ ๋ฌธโ€™ ๋‹คํ๋ฉ˜ํ„ฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ๋ ค๋‚ธ ์šฉ์‚ฐ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ ์ฐธ์‚ฌ์—์„œ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜๋“ฏ์ด ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์•„ํ””๊ณผ ํˆฌ์Ÿ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋Š” ํ•œ๊ตญ์—์„œ๋„ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ํ˜„์žฌ์ง„ํ–‰ํ˜•์ด๋ฉฐ, ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ์˜๋ฏธ์—์„œ ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ๋ฏผ ๊ฐ€์ •๊ณผ ์ผ์ƒ์˜ ํŒŒ๊ดด, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜์ €ํ•ญ๊ณผ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ์˜์‹์˜ ๋ฐœ์ „์„ ๋‹ด๋‹ดํžˆ ๊ธฐ๋กํ•ด ๊ฐ„ ์นœ ์ƒค์˜ค์˜ ๋…ธ๋ ฅ์€ ํ•œ๊ตญ ์ง€์‹์ธ์—๊ฒŒ๋„ ๋งŽ์€ ์‹œ์‚ฌ์ ์„ ๋˜์ ธ์ค€๋‹ค.

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