My first memory of David Harvey – How he shared his working draft with MSc students

1-davidharvey-capitalism1

David Harvey, 2000, Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development

I met David Harvey in person for the first time while auditing his course during my MSc study at the LSE in 1999/2000 academic year. I think the course was simply called “Historical Geographical Materialism” or something similar. It was one of the few courses that sounded anything like Marx at the LSE, and I was drawn towards it. After having had my several years in the private sector after my first degree, I was in thirst of input by progressive scholarship. I did not know David at the time, as I knew few geographers by then. It was a small seminar course, having only about 12-13 students, with discussions for two hours or so each week. Readings included his own work and the works of Gramsci, Lefebvre and more that I cannot remember. If my memory is correct, he used to occupy a small office where he held his office hours. Now that I think of it, it was too small a room for such a figure like David, equipped with fairly empty bookshelves, a desktop and a printer. It wasn’t filled with books, as I presume he was at the LSE at the time on a three-year stint and did not relocate completely. The office is what is numbered as S509 at present, and coincidentally, it happened to be my office during my first year or so as professor at LSE.

One day during the term, he came in with copies of handouts, and he told us it was a working draft of his new paper. I think he was inviting any comments from his students. The draft paper was entitled “Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development”. Another week or two later, he brought a thicker version of the same paper, revsied substantially but still a working version, and this time, its title read “Working Notes Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development”. While clearing an old ring binder from my MSc/PhD period, I came across with the paper copy again, and realised this draft actually was the basis for his 2006 Verso book Spaces of Global Capitalism: Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development”, first published as Spaces of Neo-liberalization by Franz Steiner Verlag in 2005. As the course took place in the spring of 2000, it must have taken another 4-5 years for the paper to be substantially revised, perhaps presented at several academic occasions, before it came out as a book. The memory of him sharing his paper is still vividly within me, and I appreciated a distinguished professor like David willing to share unpolished version of his drafts and inviting postgraduate students to comment on them.

Book Review in Korean: Rebel Cities by David Harvey ๋?ฐ์?ด๋น„๋“œ ํ•˜๋น„์?˜ <์ €ํ•ญ์?˜ ๋?„์‹œ>

I’ve been invited to contribute book reviews to a Korean daily newspaper calledย KyungHyang Daily. It’s going to be one book per month, and I presume it’s going to be also available on its online site. The first one I have chosen is David Harvey’s Rebel Cities (2012). The next one to come is Stephen Graham’s Cities under Siege (2011). The following is the original contribution in Korean that I sent to the newspaper.

3์›”๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์‹ ๋ฌธ์—? ์„œํ?‰์?„ ๊ธฐ๊ณ ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋?˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ํ•œ๋‹ฌ์—? ํ•œ๋ฒˆ ๊ธฐ๊ณ ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋?˜์—ˆ๋Š”๋?ฐ, ์ฒซ๋ฒˆ์งธ ์ฑ…์œผ๋กœ ์„ ์ •ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์?€ ๋?ฐ์?ด๋น„๋“œ ํ•˜๋น„์?˜ <์ €ํ•ญ์?˜ ๋?„์‹œ> (Rebel Cities). ๋‹ค์?Œ์—?๋Š” Stephen Graham’s Cities under Siege (2011) – ์•„์ง? ํ•œ๊ธ€ ๋ฒˆ์—ญ ์ œ๋ชฉ์?„ ์•ˆ์ •ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์•„๋ž˜ ๊ธ€์?€ ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์‹ ๋ฌธ์—? ๊ธฐ๊ณ ํ•œ ์›?๊ณ . 3์›” 2์?ผ์ž?๋กœ ์‹ค๋ฆด ์˜ˆ์ •์?ด๋‹ค.

์ €ํ•ญ์?˜ ๋?„์‹œย (Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution),ย ๋?ฐ์?ด๋น„๋“œ ํ•˜๋น„

๋?ฐ์?ด๋น„๋“œ ํ•˜๋น„(ํ˜„ ๋‰ด์š•์‹œ๋ฆฝ๋Œ€ ๊ต?์ˆ˜)๋Š” ์ง€๋ฆฌํ•™์ž?๋กœ ์ถœ๋ฐœํ•ด ๋ถ„๊ณผํ•™๋ฌธ์?„ ๋›ฐ์–ด๋„˜๋Š” ํ†ต์ฐฐ๋ ฅ์?„ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์œผ๋กœ ์˜ค๋žซ๋?™์•ˆ ๋น„ํŒ?์ ? ๊ด€์ ?์—?์„œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์?˜ ์ •์น˜๊ฒฝ์ œํ•™์?„ ์ •๋ฆฝํ•˜๋Š” ๋?ฐ ํž˜์?„ ์?Ÿ์•„์™”๋‹ค.ย ์ตœ๊ทผ ๋“ค์–ด ๋งŒ๋‚œ ๊ทธ๋Š” ๋ถ€์ฉ? ์‚ฌํšŒ๋ณ€ํ˜?์?˜ ํ•„์š”์„ฑ๊ณผ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•๋ก ์—? ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๊ณ ๋ฏผํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค.ย ๊ทธ์?˜ย 2012๋…„ ์‹ ์ž‘ย <์ €ํ•ญ์?˜ ๋?„์‹œ>๋Š” ์?ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๊ณ ๋ฏผ์?˜ ์„ฑ๊ณผ์?ด๋‹ค.ย ์?ด ์ฑ…์—?์„œ ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ์‚ฌํšŒ๋ณ€ํ˜?์?„ ๊ณ ๋ฏผํ•˜๋Š” ์„ธ๋ ฅ์—?๊ฒŒ ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์?„ ์ œ์‹œํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค.

Rebel_cities์ถœ๋ฐœ์ ?์?€ย โ€˜์ž?๋ณธ์?˜ ๋?„์‹œํ™”โ€™๋?ผ๋Š” ๊ด€์ ?์—?์„œ ๋ณธ ์ž?๋ณธ์ถ•์ ?๊ณผ ๋?„์‹œํ™”์?˜ ์?˜์กด์ ? ๊ด€๊ณ„์?ด๋‹ค.ย ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ๋?„์‹œํ™”๋ฅผ ๋‹จ์ง€ ์ด? ์?ธ๊ตฌ ๋Œ€๋น„ ๋?„์‹œ์?ธ๊ตฌ์?˜ ์ฆ?๊ฐ€ ํ˜„์ƒ?์?ด ์•„๋‹Œ,ย ์ž?๋ณธ์ถ•์ ?์?˜ ์ค‘์š” ์ˆ˜๋‹จ์œผ๋กœ ์?ดํ•ดํ•œ๋‹ค.ย ์ฆ‰,ย ์ž?๋ณธ์ฃผ์?˜ ๋ฐœ์ „๊ณผ์ •์—?์„œ ์ดˆ๋ž˜๋?˜๋Š” ๊ณผ์ž‰์ถ•์ ? ์œ„๊ธฐ์?˜ ์ฃผ์š” ํ•ด์†Œ ์ˆ˜๋‹จ์œผ๋กœ์?จ ๋ถ€๋?™์‚ฐ ๋ฐ? ๊ฐ?์ข… ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์‹œ์„ค์?„ ํ?ฌํ•จํ•œ ๊ณ ์ •์ž?๋ณธ,ย ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ํˆฌ์ž?๊ฐ€ ์?ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ด€์ ?์?ด๋‹ค.ย ์?ด ๊ณผ์ •์?€ ํ•„์—ฐ์ ?์œผ๋กœ ์›?๊ฑฐ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ˆ˜ํƒˆ,ย ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ? ์•ฝ์ž?์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ํ†ต์ œ์™€ ์–ต์••์?„ ๋?™๋ฐ˜ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ๋ถ€์?˜ ์†Œ์ˆ˜ ์ง‘์ค‘์?„ ์•ผ๊ธฐํ•œ๋‹ค.

[์ €ํ•ญ์?˜ ๋?„์‹œ]๊ฐ€ ์ œ๊ธฐํ•˜๋Š” ๊ทผ๋ณธ ์งˆ๋ฌธ์?€ ๋ฐ˜์ž?๋ณธ์?˜ ๊ด‘๋ฒ”์œ„ํ•œ ์—ฐ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๊ตฌ์„ฑํ•ด ๋‚ผ ๊ฒƒ์?ธ๊ฐ€,ย ๋?„์‹œ์‚ฌํšŒ์šด๋?™์?˜ ๊ธฐ์—ฌ์™€ ์—ญํ• ์?€ ๋ฌด์—‡์?ธ๊ฐ€ ๋“ฑ์?ด๋‹ค.ย ํ˜„๋Œ€ ์ž?๋ณธ์ถ•์ ?์—? ์žˆ์–ด์„œ๋Š” ์ƒ?์‚ฐํ˜„์žฅ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋?„์‹œํ™” ์ž?์ฒด๊ฐ€ ๋?”์šฑ ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ์ž‰์—ฌ ์ฐฝ์ถœ์ˆ˜๋‹จ์?ด๋ฏ€๋กœ ์ž?๋ณธ์ฃผ์?˜์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ €ํ•ญ ์—ญ์‹œ ๊ด‘๋ฒ”์œ„ํ•œ ๋?„์‹œ์‚ฌํšŒ์šด๋?™์?„ ํ†ตํ•ด ์?ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ ธ์•ผ ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ๋…ธ๋?™์šด๋?™๋?„ ์?ด์—? ๊ฒฐํ•ฉํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ์–˜๊ธฐํ•œ๋‹ค.

์—ฌ๊ธฐ์„œย โ€˜๋?„์‹œ์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌโ€™ (Right to the City),ย ์ฆ‰ย โ€˜๋?„์‹œ๊ถŒโ€™์?˜ ์ค‘์š”์„ฑ์?ด ๊ฐ•์กฐ๋?œ๋‹ค.ย ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ์ž?๋ณธ์ฃผ์?˜์—?์„œ ๋?„์‹œํ™”๋Š” ๋‹ค์ˆ˜์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฐฉ์ทจ๊ฐ€ ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ? ๋ถ€์?˜ ์†Œ์ˆ˜ ๋?…์ ?์?„ ๊ฐ•ํ™”ํ•˜๋Š” ์ชฝ์œผ๋กœ ์?ด๋ค„์ง„๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณธ๋‹ค.ย ๋?„์‹œ๊ถŒ์?€ ์?ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ฐฉ์ทจ์™€ ๋ถˆํ?‰๋“ฑ ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ํƒ€๊ฐœํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋?„์‹œ๋ฏผ์?˜ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์žฅ์?ด๋‹ค.ย ์ฃผ๋ฏผ์?˜์‚ฌ์—? ์—ญํ–‰ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฐ•์ œ์ฒ ๊ฑฐ,ย ๊ฐ•์ œ์?ด์ฃผ ๋“ฑ์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€๋ฟ? ์•„๋‹ˆ๋?ผ,ย ์น˜์†Ÿ๋Š” ์ง‘์„ธ์—? ์œ„ํ˜‘๋ฐ›๋Š” ๋?„์‹œ๋ฏผ์?˜ ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ๊ถŒ,ย ๊ฐ?์ข… ์ง€๋ฐฐ์?ด๋?ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ์—? ์–ต์••๋ฐ›๋Š” ์„ฑ์†Œ์ˆ˜์ž?,ย ์—ด์•…ํ•œ ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์?˜ ์?ด์ฃผ๋…ธ๋?™์ž?,ย ๋น„์ •๊ทœ ๋…ธ๋?™์ž?๋“ค์?˜ ์?ธ๊ฐ„๋‹ค์šด ์‚ถ์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์žฅ์?„ ํ?ฌํ•จํ•œ๋‹ค.

์?ด๊ฐ™์?€ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์žฅ์?€ ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ? ๋ถ€์?˜ ์žฌ๋ถ„๋ฐฐ ์š”๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜๋ฐ˜ํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋งˆ๋ จ์?ด๋‹ค.ย ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜,ย ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ๋‹จ์ˆœํ•œ ๋ถ€์?˜ ์žฌ๋ถ„๋ฐฐ๋งŒ์œผ๋กœ๋Š” ๊ทผ๋ณธ์ ? ๋ฌธ์ œ ํ•ด๊ฒฐ์?ด ํž˜๋“ค๋ฉฐ,ย ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ? ๋ถ€์?˜ ์ƒ?์‚ฐ ๋ฐ? ํ™œ์šฉ๊ณผ์ • ์ „๋ฐ˜์—? ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ฏผ์ฃผ์ ? ํ†ต์ œ๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ฏฟ๋Š”๋‹ค.ย ๋ฏผ์ฃผ์ ? ํ†ต์ œ๋ฅผ ์‹คํ˜„ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ๊ธฐ์กด ๋ณ€ํ˜?์šด๋?™,ย ๋จผ์ € ๋…ธ๋?™์šด๋?™์?˜ ์—ญํ•  ์žฌ์ •๋ฆฝ์?ด ํ•„์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค.ย ์ง€๊ธˆ๊นŒ์ง€ ๋ฐ˜์ž?๋ณธ์ฃผ์?˜ ํˆฌ์Ÿ?์—?๋Š” ์ƒ?์‚ฐํ˜„์žฅ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์?˜ ๋…ธ๋?™๊ณ„๊ธ‰ํˆฌ์Ÿ?์?ด ์žˆ์–ด ์™”๋‹ค.ย ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜,ย ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ? ์ž‰์—ฌ๊ฐ€์น˜์?˜ ์ƒ?์‚ฐ์?ด ์ƒ?์‚ฐ๋…ธ๋?™ ํ˜„์žฅ๋ฟ? ์•„๋‹ˆ๋?ผ ๋ถ€๋?™์‚ฐ ํˆฌ๊ธฐ,ย ๊ณ ์ •์ž?๋ณธ ํ™•์žฅ,ย ์ž?์›? ๋?…์ ?,ย ๊ฑฐ์ฃผ๋ฏผ ์ˆ˜ํƒˆ ๋“ฑ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋กœ ์?ด๋ค„์ง€๋Š” ํ˜„๋Œ€์‚ฌํšŒ์—?์„œ ๋…ธ๋?™๊ณ„๊ธ‰ํˆฌ์Ÿ?์?ด ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ์‚ฌํšŒ๋ณ€ํ˜?์šด๋?™์?˜ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์?ด ๋?˜์–ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์—? ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ์?˜๋ฌธ์?„ ํ‘œํ•œ๋‹ค.ย ํ˜„๋Œ€ ์ž?๋ณธ์ฃผ์?˜๊ฐ€ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ์?˜ ์ˆ˜ํƒˆ,ย ๋?…์ ? ๋“ฑ์?„ ํ†ตํ•ด ์?ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„๋‹ค๋ฉด,ย ๋ฐ˜์ž?๋ณธ ์šด๋?™ ์—ญ์‹œ ์?ด ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ๋“ค์?„ ํ?ฌ๊ด„ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค.ย ๋”ฐ๋?ผ์„œ ํ•˜๋น„๋Š” ๋…ธ๋?™์šด๋?™,ย ์ง€์—ญ์šด๋?™ ๋ฐ? ์‹œ๋ฏผ์šด๋?™์?˜ ์ƒ?์‹œ์ ? ์—ฐ๋Œ€์™€ ์?ด์—? ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜ํ•œ ์ €ํ•ญ ์ฆ‰ ๋ฐ˜์ž?๋ณธ ๋?„์‹œํ˜?๋ช…์?˜ ํ•„์š”์„ฑ์?„ ์ œ์ฐฝํ•œ๋‹ค.

ํ•˜๋น„์?˜ ์ฃผ์žฅ์?€ ๋?„์‹œํ™”์œจ์?ดย 90%ย ์?ด์ƒ?์?ธ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋‚˜๋?ผ์—?์„œ ์ž?๋ณธ์ถ•์ ?์?˜ ํ??ํ•ด๋ฅผ ๊ทน๋ณต์ฝ”์ž? ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ˜์ž?๋ณธ์ฃผ์?˜ ์šด๋?™์?ด ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ์ „๊ฐœ๋?ผ์•ผ ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์?ธ์ง€ ์‹œ์‚ฌ์ ?์?„ ๋?˜์ ธ์ค€๋‹ค.ย ๋น„์ •๊ทœ,ย ์ž„์‹œ,ย ํ•˜์ฒญ์ง?์?ด ๊ธฐํ˜•์ ?์œผ๋กœ ๋น„๋Œ€ํ•ด์ง€๊ณ ,ย ๋Œ€๊ธฐ์—…์?˜ ์šฐ์›”์ ? ์ง€์œ„๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ•ํ™”๋?œ ์ƒ?ํ™ฉ์—?์„œ ์†Œ๊ทœ๋ชจ ์‚ฌ์—…์žฅ,ย ๋น„์ •๊ทœ,ย ์ž„์‹œ ์?ผ์šฉ์ง?,ย ์?ด์ฃผ๋…ธ๋?™์ž? ๋“ฑ๊ณผ ๊ด€๋ จ๋?œ ์?˜์ œ๋“ค์?„ ํ?ญ๋„“๊ฒŒ ์„ค์ •ํ•˜์—ฌ,ย ์‹œ๋ฏผ๊ถŒ์—? ๊ธฐ์ดˆํ•œ ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ? ๋ถ€์?˜ ์žฌ๋ถ„๋ฐฐ๋ฟ? ์•„๋‹ˆ๋?ผ ํ•œ์ธต ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ ?์?ธ ๋ฌธ์ œ,ย ์ฆ‰ ์ž?๋ณธ ์ถ•์ ?์?ด ์?ด๋?„๋Š” ๋?„์‹œํ™” ํ??ํ•ด์—? ๊ด€์‹ฌ์?„ ๊ธฐ์šธ์?ด๋ฉฐ,ย ๋…ธ๋?™์šด๋?™,ย ์ง€์—ญ์šด๋?™,ย ์‹œ๋ฏผ์šด๋?™์?ด ์ •์น˜์„ธ๋ ฅํ™”๋งŒ์?„ ์œ„ํ•œ ์?ผ์‹œ์ ? ๋˜?๋Š” ์‚ฌ์•ˆ๋ณ„ ์—ฐ๋Œ€์—?์„œ ๋ฒ—์–ด๋‚˜ ์ƒ?์‹œ์ ?์?ธ ๋ฐ˜์ž?๋ณธ ์—ฐ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ์?ด๋ค„์•ผ ํ•  ํ•„์š”์„ฑ ๋“ฑ์?ด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์?ด๋‹ค.